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List of monuments of natural heritage in Almopia

Overview Current Situation Biodiversity Καθεστώς προστασίας Features / Specificities of the region Evolution of the natural place in the time / current situation Potential Elements / degree of degradation Degree of existing utilization Degree of future utilization Connectivity to other parts of the wider region Necessary interventions to enhance Microclimate Flora Fauna Tags
Good Plain and Forest Promachon-Lykostomo The Good Plain is a part of Mount Vora, northeast of the Black Forest and of the gorge of the straight Pine. It is 15 kilometers from the abandoned village of Upper Loutraki, and is  located just above the abandoned village 'Kalyvia Vasilakou'. It is a plateau of rare beauty and environmental value, formed over volcanic crater on the surface of which is formed ponds and canals, surrounded by beech forest. It is the largest active peat the country, covering an area of 3,350 hectares and is located at an altitude of 1.750m just above the border line that separates Greece from FYROM. We can even see the related bollards delineating precisely the line of the border. Moreover, apart from its environmental value, the Good Plain is an important part of the history of the region, as in its territory took place heavy fighting during the 1st World War and the Civil War. Remarkable is the great battle between French, Serbs, Bulgarians and Germans, also known as "Battle of Dobro Pole 'in which were killed thousands of soldiers. During the Civil War the plateau was used as airport from the Democratic Army of Greece[1]. [1] Guide Explorer, Mountainous Pella, 2005.

The road to the Good Plain is woodland and requires appropriate vehicle. Nevertheless, the road network is in good condition and signage could be classified sufficient. To reach the plateau, we pass the Upper Loutraki and continue north to our ascent to the mountain by following the signs. A few kilometers after Upper Loutraki, we can stop at the point Gkrezntin where there is a shed, table and drinking water. At this point there are many chestnut trees along the landscaped area make the place suitable for picnic.

For the lovers of hiking and climbing, the access to the plateau is made on foot, with a starting point the 'folds' over the Upper Loutraki. Beyond that, there are several suggested hiking trails, slightly altered between them involving sites such as hills Sokol (or Hawk), Watchtower, Panos, the Maurorema in Frantzouzo etc., with termination point Good Plain. The most famous routes starting at the plateau are those which end up in the Kravica tops and Sokol which are offering breathtaking views.

Returning by car, it is worth to follow the road towards the Promachon, who connects Good Plain with two other interesting places: the forest complex Promachon - Lykostomo and Serbian Cemetery. In the first area we find (among other) rare species of Pentavelonis pine (Pinus peuce), while in the second we find hewn stone fallen Serb graves in front of the first world. On the way we will find the starting point of the forest path for Peternik and it is worth to make a stop at the outdoor lunch area in place Paprantza where you will find wooden tables, benches and specially designed areas for fire. This particular area is suitable for camping.

For both points (forest Promachon-Lykostomo complex and cemetery) the rank of current utilization is quite low. Especially in the case of the Serbian cemetery, graves are distinguished with difficulty between the stones, signs do not exist and generally the place is completely degraded. Noteworthy is the number of military paths that exists in the region (distinguish one just above the cemetery) formed by the army of the allies.

Within the history of the war that took place in the region of Almopia the Good Plain is associated de facto with the points of conflict were addressed both during the 1st World War and the Civil War. Such are the Serbian Cemetery, the church of Saint Dimitrios in Xifiani which was used as an observatory of Serbian artillery, the gorge of South Jeddah where there are still remnants of the conflict and the ridges of Pinovo where it is still located trenches, fortifications and ammunition.

The Good Plain is a high peat swamp with botanical and phytogeographical interest. It is one of the few mountain peatlands that exist in Greece, with different types of insectivorous plants as Drosera anglica and Prosora Intermedia and fauna of animals owned as:

Ÿ the wolf (Canis lupus),

Ÿ the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos),

Ÿ the fidaitos (Circaetus gallicus) and

Ÿ the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus).

It is a place of outstanding beauty and its natural state is excellent. There has been no human intervention other than the extraction of water and the situation seems stable, with necessary maintenance, because for centuries there has been no change. As in other areas of high elevation mountain range of Vora, of Pinovo and Jena, the climate of the plateau is humid continental with short warm summer, without dry season and harsh winter, during which has increased snowfall and the frost days.

At this point it is worth doing a report to the forest Promachon - Lykostomo. This complex has been recognized as a Natural Monument since 1985 in order to study the Pentavelonis pine (Pinus peuce). In its fauna we meet deer and hares and the flora is very rare with items such as:

• pentaveloni (or Balkan) pine (Pinus peuce)

• Pine forest (Pinus silvestris)

• Black pine (Pinus nigra)

• Beech (Fagus silvatica)

• Fir (Abies borisii regis)

• Oak (Quercus sessiliflora)

• Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)

• Ash (Fraxinus ornus)

• Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)

• Maple (Acer campestre)

• Paliouri (Paliurus aculeatus)

• Plane tree (Platanus orientalis)

• Leptokaria (Corylus avellana)

• psevdo-plane tree (Acer pseudoplatanus)

• Ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia)

• Vitiligo (Populus tremula)

• Birch (Betula pendula)

• Willow (Salix sp.)

• linden (Tilia tomentosa)

• Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)

• Festuca ovina

• Lathyrus inermis

• Lapsana communis

• trifyllides (Trifolium montana)

• nettles (Urtica urens)

• Viola hirta

• Asperula odorata

In the area of Vora, as stated in the Special Management Plan, have been identified 157 important species. Of those, in the area of Good Plain, have been identified 20 as listed in the table below:

TAXA

FORM

GENERAL SPREAD

CONDITIONS

DISTRIBUTION IN PLACE

Onosma heterophyllum Griseb.

Turf

Balkans

1,3,4

Good Plain

Paronychia macedonica Chaudhri

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Gnaphalium uliginosum L.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

Good Plain

Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh.

Grass

Wider Spread

 

Good plain near the border

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia (Salisb.) Reichenb.

Bush

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Genista tinctoria L.

Turf

Balkans

 

14 km west of the Promachos,

Good Plain, Serbia memory,

Black Forest, Kaimaktsalan

Gentianella bulgarica (Velen.) Holub.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

Good Plain,

South northwest of Pefkoto

Thymus stojanovii Degen

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Pinguicula balcanica Casper subsp. Baicanica

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Crocus pelistericus Pulevic

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Epilobium vernonicum Snogerup

Turf

Endemic

 

Good Plain

Dactylorhiza sambuclna (L.) Soo

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Good Plain, Black Forest

Pinus peuce Griseb.

Tree

Balkans

4

Good Plain

Asperula aristata L. subsp. thessala

Turf

Endemic

 

Good Plain

Rhinanthus minor L.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

South northwest of Pefkoto, Good Plain

Poa thessala Boiss. & Orph. in Boiss.

Grass

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Ranunculus fontanus

Turf

Wider Spread

 

Good Plain

Potentilla aurea L. subsp. chrysocraspeda (Lehm.)

Nyman

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Viola orphanidis Boiss.

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain

Viola palustris L.

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain,  Black Forest

1 = Local Endemic

2 = Endemic of Greece

3 = Endemic of the Balkan (including some taxa that exist in 1-3 stations outside the Peninsula)

4 = wider spread, but in an extreme point of appearance, in this region

 

The range types that appear on Good Valley are:

þ Grasslands with Nardus, various species, in siliceous substrates in mountain and semi-mountainous zones in continental Europe (Natura: 6230, Corine: 35.1).

þ Alpine and subalpine meadows, relatively dry in a strongly acidic soil found over trees and mainly above 1800 meters, on slopes of all reports, with moderate and strong gradients (in some locations).

It is an alpine pasture, while still appearing in areas : Sarantovryses, Prophet Ilias (on the main mountain of Kaimaktsalan over 2,000 m.) and Piperitsa. Trees and shrubs are missing completely, while regarding herbs species appear : Bellardiochloa violacea, Geranium subcaulescens, Plantago holostea, Alopecurus gerardii, Jasione orbiculata, Genista depressa , Senecio abrotanifolius ssp. rpathicus, Euphrasia cf. minima, Hieracium hoppeanum, Potentilla aurea ssp. chrysocraspeda, Luzula spicata, Scleranthus perennis ssp. marginatus, Nardus stricta, Festuca sp., Anthoxanthum odoratum, Geum montanum, Sesleria coerulans, Deschampsia flexuosa, Juniperus nana, Festuca ovina group, Campanula spathulata, Thymus sp., Poa thessala, Scorzonera purpurea ssp. rosea, Achillea clusiana, Anthemis cretica ssp. columnae, Hieracium alpicola, Dlanthus myrtinervlus, Verbascum sp., Minuartia recurva, Juncus trifidus, Viola eximia, Dianthus minuartifolius, Dianthus deltoides, Carex kitaibeliana, Gentiana punctata, Sedum sp., Pedicularis leucodon, Crepis arcuata, Luzula cf. sudetica, Lotus corniculatus, Alchemilla sp., Cardus kerneri ssp. scardicus, Hieracium sparsum, Achillea chrysocoma, Ranunculus sartorianus, και Sesleria ssp. robusta.

These areas are out of forest management and are used only for grazing.

The upland bog of Dobro Pole, has been included in the NATURA 2000 network and CORINE-Biotopes and designated as a Avifauna Protection Area. Within the framework of NATURA 2000, is included in the protected area GR1240001, SAC, Tops terms of Vora and GR1240008, SPA, Mount Boras[1].

 

[1] Forestry of Aridea (N. Mentis, I. Ioannidis)

 

Picturesque plateau with wet meadows and marshy spot, on the border with FYROM. High peat swamp with botanical and phytogeographical interest. Various kinds of insectivorous plants.

Place of outstanding beauty, kept in excellent condition. There has been human intervention other than the extraction of water and the situation seems stable, with necessary its protection, because for centuries there has been no change.

Some damaged signs. Someone could show the forest road. leading to the plateau, which in some places is inaccessible for cars, but from our side we do not believe that this is a degradation factor. Instead, we would say that to some extent is also a shield to protect the region from the human element

Not officially recovered or in a large scale. The spring and summer months, attracts many locals who exploit the uniqueness of the area for excursions and hiking.

Several possibilities. See below.

Very close we can see the forest of Pine Pentaveloni. Also in Papratza area as we descend from the plateau, there is a very nice spot to picnic or camp. Somewhere on our way, we find the beginning of the path to the top Peternik. Connection to forests of the region and to places of historical interest in the area under the '' Ways of Nature and History ''.

Highlighting the historical and natural wealth. It would be useful to get an informative label with information about the history and biodiversity of the place. We do not consider legitimate, some interventions that may facilitate the access (eg asphalting) which simultaneously would alter the landscape and allow the influx of visitors.

Strong winds, high humidity, little sunshine, fog, low cloud, frequent rainfall and snowfall
  •  English sundew or Great sundew
  • Canis lypos (wolf)
  • Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)
  • Circaetus gallicus (Fidaitos / Short-toed snake eagle)
  • Neophron percnopterus (Asproparis – Egyptian Vulture)
Mount Vora, Dopro Pole
Thermal baths of Loutraki The thermal baths of Loutraki or otherwise Pozar are 2 km away from Loutraki and 13 kilometers from the town of Pozar. The thermal baths are located in the center of a green area in the valley of the stream of St. Nikolaos (or 'Toplitsa') with gorges, waterfalls and forests. The sources date back to antiquity and the waters have many healing properties. Because of water wealth and location, it is said that the baths were used as a camp by the British- French allied forces during the First World War[1]. The baths facilities are built along the stream of St.Nikolaos and include outdoor swimming pools, restaurants, cafes and parks. It is open all year, and the swimming pools are available 24 hours a day. The baths remained in private exploitation, until 1985, when they received at the community of Loutraki, while today managed by the Municipality of Aridea[2]. It is notably (as we learn from visitors of the Baths in the past decades) that previously, bathers were obliged to go primarily by Clinic Baths and examined by the local doctor in order himself to indicate the number of baths and the quantity of water-drinkable corresponding to each. The above were noted by the doctor on a special individual record[3].The trip to Pozar, can be combined with several activities and visits to other (natural) surrounding attractions. One of them is the Kounoupitsa Waterfall, 12 meters high, at the end (or the beginning) of the gorge of the Baths. The path to the waterfall (with a total duration of two hours) starts from the parking of the Thermal Baths with direction the cave-chasm, climbs with trail in Upper Loutraki and the outpost follows downhill course to the stream of Ag. Nikolaos. After some time walking along the bank of the stream, leads to the waterfall. Alternatively, the stroke may start from the guardhouse outside from Upper Loutraki, which is easily accessible by car. Beyond the lush forest landscape, the path to the waterfall offers many viewpoints in the stream of St. Nicholas and the impressive canyon of Straight Pine.Other places of historical and natural interest around the Baths are : the Cave-chasm and the Folk Museum, St. John in Upper Loutraki, the Good Plain, Mount Voras, the Black Forest in Orma and the wetland Agra - Island - Vrytton . Also, on the way to Giannitsa, the visitor of the Thermal Baths have the opportunity to see the “Thermal Baths Pozar of M. Alexander” as it is called a Hellenistic fountain building near the ancient Pella[4]. [1] Tzimopoulos G., Our travelogues: from Kozani-Ptolemaida-Amyntaio-Saint Panteleimon-Arnissa-Agra- Almopia-Edessa-Aridea-Loutra Pozar, Kozani, ch.e, ch.ch, p. 95.[2] Karassavidis, P., Creating the Digital terrain of Loutra Pozar Pref. Pellas, in Environment ArcGIS, Master Thesis, Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Department of Cadastre, Photogrammetry and Cartography, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2010, p. 26.[3] Tzimopoulos G., Our travelogues: from Kozani-Ptolemaida-Amyntaio-Saint Panteleimon-Arnissa-Agra- Almopia-Edessa-Aridea-Loutra Pozar, Kozani, ch.e, ch.ch, p. 96. [4] See  http://www.loutrapozar.info/sights. 

The thermal baths of Loutraki attract many visitors throughout the year. Their premises are in good condition and the place utilized heavily by several but not intrusive interventions and alterations to the natural landscape. Only necessary or even legitimate intervention in terms of shelter, it would be the qualitative enhancement of the focus area located above the small pool, both aesthetically and in terms of services offered.

The visit at the thermal baths is connected to a series of alternative tourism activities such as climbing, hiking and mountaineering trails and hiking trails of the forest surrounding the thermal baths.

The image of the area, recently changed with the configuration of the thermal baths, the creation of accommodation and intervention in the natural landscape. Despite the interventions, the Loutraki forest, the gorge and the general area around the “thermopotamo” remain in very good condition. Specifically, the Loutraki forest has good form, growth and development.

Because of the continuous flow throughout the course of time, the stream of Baths is able to retain fish populations as Moustakatos (Barbus meridionalis) and trouts, which disappeared in 1979 because of local flooding[1].

The climate of the Loutraki is terrestrial Mediterranean with hot, dry summer, while in the rich flora of the thermal baths area and specifically in the Loutraki forest, we find trees and plants such as :

• Beech (Fagus sylvatica)

• Oak (Quercus sessiliflora)

• Oak (Q. conferta, Q. Pubescens)

• Black pine (Pinus nigra)

• Chestnut (Castanea vesca)

• Ash (Fraxinus ornus)

• Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)

• Kraniá (Cornus mas)

• Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)

• Fir (Abies borisii regis)

• Scots pine (Pinus silvestris)

• Balkan pine (pentaveloni) (Pinus peuce)

• Maple (Acer campestre)

• Leptokaria (Corylus avellana)

• Vitiligo (Populus tremula)

• Willow (Salix sp.)

• Plane tree (Platanus orientalis)

• Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia)

• Fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

• Lapsana communis

• Festuca ovina

• Trifolium montanum

• Briers (Rubus tomentosa)

• Cicerbita muralis

• Fragaria vesca

• Asperula odorata

Vegetation Map of River Basin of Nikolaos Streams

Vegetation Map of River Basin of Nikolaos Streams

In the fauna of the region, on the other, we find numerous mammals and birds such as:

Mammals :

- Canis lupus (wolf)

- Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer)

- Felis silvestris morea (Wildcat of Moria)

- Martes foina (Ferret)

- Sus scrofa (wild boar)

- Vulpes vulpes crucigera (Fox)

- wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.)

- Hare (Lepuseuropaeus Pallas)

- Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.)

- Ferret (Martes foina Erxleben),

- Wildcat (Felis sylvestris Schreber)

- Rats, mice and bats

 

Mammals that require special protection status:

- wild cat (paragraph IV Directive 92/43 EU)

- Wolf, Ferret (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

- Lynx (Bern Convention & paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

 

Birds :

- Athene noctua (Owl)

- Buteo buteo buteo (Buzzard)

- Carduelis carduelis carduelis (Goldfinch)

- Carduelis chloris chloris (Oriole)

- Columba palumbus palumbus (Fassa)

- Corvus corax corax (Crow)

- Buteo rufinus rufinus (long-legged buzzard)

- Pernis apivorus (European honey buzzard)

- Bonasa bonasia (grouse)

- Cuculus canorus (Cuckoo)

- Turdus merula merula (Blackbird)

 

[1] Karassavidis, P., Creating the Digital terrain of Loutra Pozar Pref. Pellas, in Environment ArcGIS, Master Thesis, Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Department of Cadastre, Photogrammetry and Cartography, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2010, p. 39.

 

The thermal baths belong to the NATURA 2000 network and particularly in the protected areas GR1240001, Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), Peaks of mountain range of Vora and GR1240008, Educational Priority Zones (EPZ), Voras Mountain[1].

 

 

[1] Forestry of Aridea (N. Mentis, I. Ioannidis)

 

Upgraded services and infrastructure. Quick access from Loutraki. Very lush vegetation. Several options for hiking trails. Strong element of the third age.

The situation in the region is excellent. Interventions are more than other natural places in Almopia like Black forest, Dobro Pole etc. but remains in unobtrusive levels. Large-scale interventions, however, were made relatively recently.

In the area there is a large untapped building stock.

The area is leveraged to the full, but not in the direction and with all the qualities to be had.

Highlighting the specific natural and historical characteristics (water, Caves findings).

Connection to the Cave precipice, Upper Loutraki through the path from the thermal Baths, Forest Loutraki Gorge thermal Baths, Ramno Bor, Dobro Pole, Black Forest, Kaimaktsalan, waterfall of Kounoupitsa.

Making visited the Cave precipice. Also, establishment of an information kiosk. Mini Driver Version for the thermal Baths and the surrounding area. Upgrading the eating establishments, just above the small pool of Baths, both aesthetically (decoration, equipment) and the service issue.

Because of their relatively low altitude, the Baths remain in the category of terrestrial Mediterranean climate, with hot and dry summer.
  • Beech (Fagus silvatica)
  • Oak (Quercus sessiliflora)
  • Oak (Q. conferta, Q. Pubescens)
  • Black pine (Pinus nigra)
  • Chestnut (Castanea vesca)
  • Ash (Fraxinus ornus)
  • Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)
  • Kraniá (Cornus mas)
  • Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)
  • Fir (Abies borisii regis)
  • Forest pine (Pinus silvestris)
  • Balkan pine (pentaveloni) (Pinus peuce)
  • Maple (Acer campestre)
  • Leptokarya (Corylus avellana)
  • Vitiligo (Populus tremula)
  • Willow (Salix sp.)
  • Plane tree (Platanus orientalis)
  • Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
  • Lapsana communis
  • Festuca ovina
  • Trifolium montanum
  • Vata (Rubus tomentosa)
  • Cicerbita muralis
  • Fragaria vescaAsperula odorata

Mammals

Canis lupus (wolf)
Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer)
Felis silvestris morea (Wildcat of Moria)
Martes foina (Ferret)
Sus scrofa (wild boar)
Vulpes vulpes crucigera (Fox)
Wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.)
Hare (Lepuseuropaeus Pallas)
Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.)
Marten (Martes foina Erxleben)
Wildcat (Felis sylvestris Schreber)
Rats, mice and bats

 

Mammals that require special protection regime:

- Bobcat (paragraph IV EU Directive 92/43)

- Wolf, marten (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

- Lynx (Berne Convention and paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

 

birds

- Athene noctua (Owl)

- Buteo buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)

- Carduelis carduelis carduelis (Goldfinch)

- Carduelis chloris chloris (Oriole)

- Columba palumbus palumbus (Fassa)

- Corvus corax corax (Crow)

- Buteo rufinus rufinus (Long-legged buzzard)

- Pernis apivorus (European honey buzzard)

- Bonasa bonasia (hazel grouse)

- Cuculus canorus (Cuckoo)

- Turdus merula merula (Blackbird)

Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Λουτρά Πόζαρ
Black forest The Black Forest or 'Forest of Orma' is located on the east of Mount Voras or otherwise Kaimaktsalan (on the border between Greece - FYROM) and is one of the most spectacular woodland areas. The attribute from which it took its name, is the dense clumps of slender and the tall trees that block the rays of the sun to reach the ground, thus making the place shady and quite dark. The dense and impressive vegetation is due to the river 'Beltsa' or 'Aspropotamos'. The woods is dominated by beech while we meet Scots pine and black pine chiefly in upper limits to the alpine zone. It is said that from the trees of the forest, Alexander the Great sourced wood with which he made the six meters long spears of his army, known as “Sarissa”. In mountainous Vora area around and inside the Black Forest we meet many gorges and waterfalls and over the forest is the crater of an extinct (since prehistoric times) volcano.

Access to the Black Forest can be done in two ways: either from the village Orma few minutes away from the Thermal Baths in Loutraki or from the Megaplatano. The most common way however is the Orma. Coming out of the asphalt and starting the climb, our existing road network allows you to get pretty high and deep into the forest. However on rainy days the road gets muddy and access is tremendously difficult in some places. In any case, the climb in Black Forest requires a high vehicle with all-wheel drive, while a good idea if we want to walk in the woods is to have a mountain guide

Before we begin the ascent to the Vora and the Black Forest or even after the end of our walk going down, it is worth making a stop in Orma (old name Tresino), a quite beautiful village full of trees and small channels with rushing waters surrounding square. Orma is the gateway to the Black Forest and the ski center of Kaimaktsalan. The village, as well as Kerasia, which is  located nearby, have hostels and dining. The ride or hiking in the Black Forest can also be combined with one stop in Pozar, which are only a few minutes drive from the Orma.

The Black Forest as mentioned above, is a beech forest, old, with structure and development near KLIMAX, in which were reduced human intervention. Developed by itself, creating all the development phases of a natural forest. Today the forest is in satisfactory form of development and evolution of the milder slopes, moderate development in strong slope and steep. In the Black Pine a great number of trees are declining, have been distinguished or are dead. All the features mentioned above contribute to the great ornithological importance of the area for vultures, eagles, hawks, woodpeckers and numerous passerines, while in the waters of the area there are populations of wild trout.

As in other mountainous areas, the climate is beyond the limits of the Mediterranean and becomes liquid, continental with short warm summer, without dry season and harsh winter, during which is increased snowfall and frost days.

The ecosystem of the Black Forest, like the mountains of Vora generally considered as rich and rare. In the Black Forest, therefore, we find a variety of plants and trees including:

• the Beech (Fagus sylvatica),

• Black (Pinus nigra) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris),

• the Chestnut (Castanea Sativa),

• Oak (Quercus macrolepis),

• Honey and Ash - toponym Yassin (Fraxinus ornus).

In the Vora area in general (as stated in the Special Management Plan) identified 157 important species. Of these, in the Black Forest have been identified 13 as listed in the table below.

TAXA

FORM

GENERAL SPREAD

CONDITIONS

DISTRIBUTION IN PLACE

Betula pendula Roth.

Tree

Wider Spread

 

Black Forest, Orma,

Genista tinctoria L.

Turf

Balkans

 

14 km west of the Promachos,

Good Plain, Serbia memory,

Black Forest, Kaimaktsalan

Gentiana cruciata L.

Turf

Wider Spread

4

Black Forest

Cephaianthera damasonium (Miller) Druce

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Black Forest

Cephaianthera rubra (L.) Rieh

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Black Forest

Dactylorhiza cordigera (Fries) Soo

Turf

Βαλκάνια

2,4

Black Forest

Dactylorhiza sambuclna (L.) Soo

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Good Plain, Black Forest

Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. BR. in Aiton

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Black Forest

Limodorum abortivum (L.) Schwartz

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Black Forest

Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C.M. Richard

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Black Forest

Orchis pallens L.

Turf

Wider Spread

2,4

Black Forest

Saxifraga porophylla Bertol. subsp. Grisebachii

Turf

Balkans

 

Black Forest

Viola palustris L.

Turf

Balkans

 

Good Plain, Black Forest

Finally, as regards fauna, the Black Forest accommodates animals such as:

• the chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.)

• the hare (Lepus Europaeus Pallas)

• The Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.)

• marten (Martes foina Erxleben)

• vultures

• eagles

• hawks

• partridges pasture

• woodpeckers

• sparrows

The Black Forest (like all natural monuments of Almopia) belongs to the NATURA 2000 network, particularly in protected areas GR1240001, SAC, Tops terms of Vora and GR1240008, SPA, Mount of Boras. Also, the Black Forest belongs to the network of protected areas that are game shelters. In the wider region there are the following shelters: the massif of Vora / Game Shelter of Orma, area of 32,000 acres. (AP 1980 / 31.12.1996) and the massif  of Vora / Temporary Game Shelter  - ski area (5 year duration). Area of 3,500 acres. (AP 7266 / 6.8.2001 Region of Central Macedonia.[1])

[1] Forestry of Aridea (N. Mentis, I. Ioannidis)

 

Very dense array of trees, which makes it particularly dark. Beech Forest. The only human intervention point is the expansion of the road network. Yet, there remains a forest road (dirt road) and is not paved.

Excellent physical condition, untouched by human hand, until today.

There is no good signage and from a certain point, someone is going up for the first time it is possible to get lost. The road is quite difficult, definitely wants 4X4. Degradation factor is the illegal-logging that plagues all forests. At some point near the road, there is an abandoned collapsing building, which could be exploited.

Very low rate of recovery that would not be necessarily negative. The forest attracts visitors interested in trekking and other activities in a smaller scale.

It is recommended mild tourist development, with controlled ecotourism activities or educational visits from schools and universities in the woods.

Connection to forests and mountains of Almopia, forests of the mountains Pinovo, Jena, players, the Promahi-Lykostomo forest near Dobro Pole, Forest Loutraki, a Ramno Bor etc.

The marking is necessary, particularly at points where the road has junctions or turns. Create a mountain lodge.

Humid climate, continental with short warm summer, without dry season and harsh winter, during which is increased snowfall and frost days. With the location of the forest, the topography of the area and the existing vegetation, we accept that the forest belongs to the continental climate type.

 black pine (Pinus nigra)  pine forest (Pinus silvestris)  Beech (Fagus silvatica)  Chestnut tree (Castanea Sativa)  Oak (Quercus macrolepis)  Melio  Fraxinous – place name Yassin (Fraxinus ornus)

 wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.),  hare (Lepuseuropaeus Pallas),  squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.),  marten (Martes foina Erxleben),  wildcat (Felis sylvestris Schreber),  wolf (Canis lupus L.),  wild boar (Sus scrofa L.),  bear (Ursus arctos L.)  lynx (Lynx Lynx Temmink)  rats, mice and bats

Orma, Natura 2000, forest, Mountain Vora
Pinovo Tzena The mountains Pinovo and Jena, are located northeast of the valley of Almopia, on the border line with FYROM. Their height reaches 2,156 m. (Top Korfoula, Pinovo) and 2,182 m. (Top Large Jena). The mountains are covered by dense forests and stand for their alpine meadows. Other known peaks of Pinovo, is Visogkrant (2,150 m.) and Monk (1873 m.). Both Pinovo and Jena were wars fields during the first World War and the Civil War, which is disclosed by the ruins and remnants of conflict still found in their territory.

The access to both mountains is particularly difficult on rainy days, as the dirt road that leads inside, fills muds and at some points becomes inaccessible even for 4x4 vehicles. Both mountains are in excellent condition and have remained intact over time. The exception is the expansion of the road network as well as activities that increase the degradation of the place such as illegal-logging.

As in all mountainous forest complexes in the country, (so in this case), always the inhabitants met their needs in fuel from the surrounding forests and even from places that were more affordable for them. Both the legal firewood collection, and illegal, become in an unacceptable manner, resulting in almost complete stumps of easy reach of clusters of oak and beech.

Today this risk is greatly reduced - despite the few cases observed for the following reasons :

- Due to the availability firewood from the Forest Service with a very low price

- Raising the standard of living and social status of residents,

- The great contribution of the forest to local residents at work and products

- Full use of purely agricultural land.

Nevertheless, even today there are fortunately few, illegal logging cases. The illegal logging, results from observational data of the situation of the forest and it is not measurable.

According to the Greek Ornithological Society, land uses in these mountains are structured as follows: agriculture (20%), forestry (30%), military (10%), tourism / recreation (10%), water management (including basin district management) (5%), while 20% of the land is not used[1]. The tourist industry is moving at low levels and generally the mountains are not exploited nor promoted as tourist destinations. Related infrastructure such as shelters or ski resorts do not exist in any of the two mountains. There is only one ski resort in Jena, which is on the other side of the border in FYROM, where the Jena called Kozouf.

Because of the virgin forest land, both mountains are ideal for walks in the woods and in the natural attractions. For Pinovo, the most famous proposed route is the path Aetochori-Black Rock-Korfoula starting from Aetochori Piazza, while in the case of Jena the most proposed route is the one that starts from the Gorge South and ends at the top of Great Jena. At the same time, we can visit the canyon Pefkoto and Rema Oily.

The visit in the two mountain ranges can be combined with a visit to the traditional villages of Aetochori, Archangel, South, Periclean and the Upper Garefi, where we can see from near the church of St. Demetrius, the Archangel Monastery, waterfall of South, the site of the ancient settlement of Pericles and the Church of the Assumption, respectively. In the historical field now because of their role as warfare fields the two mountains are connected to corresponding natural sites like Dobro Pole and the mountain range Boras-Pinovo-Jena where we can still find remnants of the violent wars of the first half of 20th century (see South canyon). In the case of Pinovo along its ridge, we meet old fortification sites, missiles, fences and stone machine guns[2].

 

[1] Greek Ornithological Society, http://ornithologiki.gr/page_iba.php?aID=38

 

[2] Related photos we will find here: http://canyoning-caving.blogspot.gr/2012/05/blog-post.html

The two mountains are an extensive mountain complex, well wooded with mixed and coniferous forests with continental climate, with cool summers.

The situation of the place is excellent physical and the trend is the slow degradation. The forest complex shows less degradation compared to other land uses. Threats come from illegal hunting, expansion of the road network, the illegal-logging, farming etc. These have the effect of reducing biodiversity habitat. More specifically, some of the activities, actual or not, directly threatening the rare avifauna of the area are :

- The abandonment of traditional agricultural practices and land use, including the abandonment of extensive agriculture and animal husbandry

- Illegal use of poisoned baits for the control of “harmful” mammals

- The activities that cause disturbance (hunting, logging, fishing, gathering plants and firewood[1])

- The construction of small hydropower plants in Pefkoto, Aetochori and the valley of Foustani

- The planned installation of wind-energy park[2]

- The reforestation of abandoned crop and meadows with plantations Robina Pseudacia (the Pseudacia is forest species that easily covers the abandoned fields).

- Intensive forest exploitation etc.[3]

In the region Jena (GR1240002) alpine views of rocks Pinovo are very important for the chamois (a small population, the only mountain range in Jena - Pinovo and Voras) and for birds of pray such as golden eagles, vultures and peregrine falcons. In the lowlands, there are high oak forests with good structure, which form important feeding and nesting areas for several species of woodpeckers. Inaccessible beech forests just below the treeline are also important for wildlife. The area is generally well maintained.

To date, there have been drawn some maps of habitat types of mountain Jena. The first was written during the period 1999-2000 within the network Natura 2000, code GR 1240002 (Mountains Jena). The second was written during the same period, under the Special Environmental Study (SES) for the region "Mountains Jena - Pinovo", which is designated as Special Protection Area (SPA) with the code GR 1240007 in the network Natura 2000. Moreover, there has been drawn up vegetation map of the area within the mountain ranges of forest management study for the period 2000-2009, based on the classification of vegetation by the main forest species. The last map was drawn under the program "Mapping the vegetation of Mount Jena (Northern Greece)" by M. Chasapi[4], K. Theodoropoulos[5], E. Eleftheriadou[6].

 

 

[1] Sidiropoulos, L., 'Action Plan for the Special Protection Area GR1240007 Mountains Jena and Pinovo' 'in Dimalexis, A. Bousbouras, D., Kastritis, Th., Manolopoulos A. and V. Saravia (Moderators Version). Final report Programme reassessment of 69 important bird areas for their designation as a Special Bird Protection Zones. Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Athens.

 

[2] Program LIFE + '' Urgent measures to ensure the survival of the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in Bulgaria and Greece '', http://lifeneophron.eu/gr/SPA_TPM.html

 

[3] Greek Ornithological Society, http://ornithologiki.gr/page_iba.php?aID=38

[4] Laboratory of Forest Botany-Geobotany, School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and Forestry of Aridea.

 

[5] Laboratory of Forest Botany-Geobotany, School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

[6] Laboratory of Forest Botany-Geobotany, School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Vegetation Zones

 

In the region Jena -Pinovo appear four of the five vegetation zones of our country as distinguished and described by the higher plant communities of BRAUN-BLANQUET system. This system resulted from investigations made by BRAUN-PLANKYET, in the vegetation of the Swiss Alps and is based on the flora. Today is known as phytosociological system BRAUN-BLANQUET. The basic principles of this system are :

1. the flora compared tables

2. the sociological progress

The first case is related to the research, while the second with a specific classification of plant communities[1].

The vegetation zones, in order from the lowest to the highest positions are described below :

 

“Mediterranean” vegetation zone (Quercetalia pubescentis)

This zone begins at the lowest positions in the foothills of Pinovo - Tzena and reaches the sea height 750 - 950 m.

The lower part of the zone reaches the sea height of 550 m in the eastern and north areas and 650 m in the south and west areas. It belongs to the area of Ostryo - Carpinion especially in growth area Carpinetum orientalis. The growth area Coccifero - Carpinetum appears only in a few places and even under extreme conditions. The predominant woody species that compose the vegetation of the subarea are: the eastern hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), the ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia), the Fraxinus ornus, maple (Acer campestre), the tomentose oak (Quercus pubescens), the holm oak (Quercus coccifera), cedar (Juniperus oxycedrus) the kokorevythia (Pistacia terrebinthus), the agriopigano (Coronilla emeroides), hazel (Coryllus avellana), the moumoutzelia (Crataegus monogyna) etc. with which blended the broadleaved oak (Quercus conferta) and Quercus cerris.

The remaining upper part of this zone is occupied by the subarea Quercion confertae and reaches normally by the sea height 750 m and - in the southern regions - up to 950 m. The differentiation of the composition of oak forests in this subband, allows distinguishing two growth areas, ie lower Quercetum confertae, dominated mainly tomentose and leaved oak and upper Quercetum montanum where Quercus dalechampii prevails and the Quercus cerris .

 

Zone beech forests – Abies (Fagetalia)

The appearance of beech in Pinovo and Jena starts from the upper limits of the previous zone and reaches the sea height 1500 - 1650 m forming the Subarea Fagion moesiacae subband Fagetalia. Here, you can see three types of beech : abundant  Fagus sylvatica and Fagus moesiacae and rarely the Fagus orientalis.

Apart from the upper portion of the subarea (1400 - 1650 m) where the presence of hybrid fir (Abies borisii regis) and the rare white fir (Abies alba) creates the growth area Abieti - Fagitom. The entire rest of the region belongs to the growth area Fagetum moesiacae. Beyond dominated beech and fir species in the composition of woody vegetation zone species involved: Betula verrucosa, Acer pendula, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer platanoides, Acer hurganum, Acer obtusatum, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus torminalis, Tilia cordata, Taxus baccata, Ilex aquifolium, Evonymus latifolius, Viburnum lantana, Juniperus communis, Juniperus oxycedrus, Lonicera alpigena, etc. Within that zone, characteristic is the presence of the black forest (Pinus nigra) and the Pinus silvestris that dominate in shallow soil and prominent positions. The pinus sylvestris mixed generally in the beech forests of the area in appropriate locations. Instead, the black pine occurs only occasionally, in places both Pinovo bands and Jena.

The zone of beech forests - spruce, covers most of the main massif of Pinovo and Jena simultaneously forming in most cases the treeline with mixed stands of beech forest - hybrid fir (Fagus silvatica - Abies borisii regis).

 

Conifer zone with trees (Vaccinio - Picetalia) that fitted to all the territories and are resistant to frost

The neat appearance (mainly on the western side) of forest from forest pine (Pinus silvestris) above the forest zone beech – silver fir, up to the sea level 1900m includes them in the growth area Pinetum silvestris area of evergreen conifers (Vaccinio - Picetalia). This pine is in the southern regions, is also higher than the zone of beech forests - silver fir, but does not form a closed block, occurring scattered or in small groups.

 

Outside forest zone of high mountains (Astragalo - Acantholimon Italia)

In the area of free forest, above the forest zone beech - silver fir, presented extensively, species-rich, fertile alpine meadows, which almost all are a result of human influence. The Pinovo, Jenny and generally all the Voras was for centuries a center of rich nomadic livestock (outside the boundaries of the forest pastures). This contributed to the decline of treeline across the mountain range, which the higher should be installed between 1900 m and 2000 m sea level, an area that cannot be regarded as purely alpine. The presence of some small shrubs such as Juniperus nana, Daphne oleoides, Rosa pendulina, Acantholimon echinus etc. leads to the conclusion, to join the site area Astragalo - Acantholimonetalia.

In conclusion, the flora of the area consists of thoughtful a large number of genera and species at three floors, overfloor, middlefloor and underfloor, in all altitude zones. The great biodiversity of flora, results to find food and shelter many species of forest fauna.

In the flora and fauna of the two mountains we find the following :

 

 

 

Flora

• Beech (Fagus sylvatica)

• Oak (Quercus sessiliflora)

• Fir (Abies borisii regis),

• Fraxinus ornus

• Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)

• Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)

• Ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia)

• Kraniá (Cornus mas),

• pines (Pinus nigra)

• Vitiligo (Populus tremula),

• Willow (Salix sp.)

• “Dasopefko” (Pinus sylvestris)

• Celtis australis (Melikoukia)

• Betula pendula (birch)

• Quercus trojana (Macedonian oak)

• Taxus baccata (Itamos)

• Ilex aquifolium (holly)

• Buxus sempervirens (Pyxos)

• Juniperus communis alpina (Nano vounokedro)

• Juniperus excelsa (wild cypress)

• Junipeus sabina (wild cypress the Savinio)

• Daphne laureola laureola (Dafnoula the dafnoeidis)

• Salvia officinalis (Pharmaceutical Sage)

• Lonicera alpigena formanekiana (Honeysuckle of Formanek)

• Rosa sp.

• Calamitha grandiflora (kalaminthi the Grandiflora)

• Campanula sp.

• Centaurea sp.

• Festuca sp.

• Agrostis sp.

• fern (Pteridium aquilinum),

• Cicerbita muralis

• Orchis sp.

• Allium sp.

• Anemone sp.

 

 

 

Bushes

• Common Juniper (Juniperus communis)

• dwarfish Juniper (Juniperus nana)

• Cranberries Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)

• Leptokaria (Corylus avellana)

• Pournari (Quercus coccifera)

• Fraxinus ornus

• Crataegus monogyna

• Ilex aquifolium

• Kraniá (Cornus mas)

• clematis (Clematis vitalba)

• Daphne (Daphne oleoides)

• Chrysoxylo (Rhus cotinus)

 

Fauna

 

Mammals

• Canis lupus (wolf)

• Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer)

• Felis silvestris morea (Wildcat of Moria)

• Martes foina (Ferret)

• Sus scrofa (wild boar)

• Ursus arctos (Bear)

• Vulpes vulpes crucigera (Fox)

• wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.),

• hare (Lepuseuropaeus Pallas),

• Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.),

• Ferret (Martes foina Erxleben),

• wildcat (Felis sylvestris Schreber),

• Lynx (Lynx Lynx Temmink)

• rats, mice and bats

 

Mammals that require special protection regime:

• bear, wild goat (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

• wildcat (paragraph IV EU Directive 92/43)

• wolf, Ferret (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

• Lynx (Berne Convention and paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

 

 

Birds

• Alectoris graeca (rock partridge)

• Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)

• Aquila heliaca heliaca (Imperial Eagle)

• Athene noctua (Little Owl)

• Buteo buteo buteo (Gerakina)

• Carduelis carduelis carduelis (Goldfinch)

• Carduelis chloris chloris (Oriole)

• Columba palumbus palumbus (Fassa)

• Corvus corax corax (Crow)

• Erithacus rubecula rubecula (Robin)

• Falco peregrinus peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)

• Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Bearded Vulture)

• Gyps fulvus (Griffon Vulture)

• Hieraaetus fasciatus (Bonelli's Eagle)

• Circaetus gallicus (Short-toed Eagle)

• Jynx torquilla torquilla (Stravolemos)

• Buteo rufinus rufinus (Aitogerakina)

• Pernis apivorus (European honey buzzard)

• Eremophila alpestris balcanica (Chionada)

• Bonasa bonasia (hazel grouse)

• Neophron percnopterus (Asproparis)

• Cuculus canorus (Cuckoo)

• Turdus merula merula (Blackbird)

 

Landscape development

The study "Timeless monitoring vegetation Special Protection Area" Mountains Jena - Pinovo of "Prefecture Pella", made by D. Trakolis, P. Platis and I. Meliadis (National Agricultural Research Foundation - Institute of Forest Research) and is included in the minutes of the 4th issue Panhellenic Rangeland Congress held in Volos (10-12 November 2004) from the Ministry of Rural Development and Food, DG Development and Protection of Forests and Natural Environment & the Greek Range and Pasture Society and was designed to monitor (monitoring) the changes in the decade from 1989 to 1999, showed the following results (pp. 363-368) :

The category of beech has undergone the fewest changes, whereas the other categories of land cover in general show a decrease. Particularly, in the case of different types of meadows, (in percentage changes) the category of grassland is decreasing 11.23% of the total area covered, followed by sparse scrub vegetation reduced to 6.58% of the area. A major problem in the whole range of work that carried out for the study area, was the presence of clouds.

Table 1. Timeless changes in vegetation cover rates on the total of each category.

 

[1] System Analysis  to: Athanasiadis, N., Forest phytosociological, Giachoudi Publications, 1985, p. 44-56.

 

 

Map 3. Land-use map of the area Vora, Pinovo Jena.

Vegetation Zones

 

In the region Jena -Pinovo appear four of the five vegetation zones of our country as distinguished and described by the higher plant communities of BRAUN-BLANQUET system. This system resulted from investigations made by BRAUN-PLANKYET, in the vegetation of the Swiss Alps and is based on the flora. Today is known as phytosociological system BRAUN-BLANQUET. The basic principles of this system are :

1. the flora compared tables

2. the sociological progress

The first case is related to the research, while the second with a specific classification of plant communities[1].

The vegetation zones, in order from the lowest to the highest positions are described below :

 

“Mediterranean” vegetation zone (Quercetalia pubescentis)

This zone begins at the lowest positions in the foothills of Pinovo - Tzena and reaches the sea height 750 - 950 m.

The lower part of the zone reaches the sea height of 550 m in the eastern and north areas and 650 m in the south and west areas. It belongs to the area of Ostryo - Carpinion especially in growth area Carpinetum orientalis. The growth area Coccifero - Carpinetum appears only in a few places and even under extreme conditions. The predominant woody species that compose the vegetation of the subarea are: the eastern hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), the ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia), the Fraxinus ornus, maple (Acer campestre), the tomentose oak (Quercus pubescens), the holm oak (Quercus coccifera), cedar (Juniperus oxycedrus) the kokorevythia (Pistacia terrebinthus), the agriopigano (Coronilla emeroides), hazel (Coryllus avellana), the moumoutzelia (Crataegus monogyna) etc. with which blended the broadleaved oak (Quercus conferta) and Quercus cerris.

The remaining upper part of this zone is occupied by the subarea Quercion confertae and reaches normally by the sea height 750 m and - in the southern regions - up to 950 m. The differentiation of the composition of oak forests in this subband, allows distinguishing two growth areas, ie lower Quercetum confertae, dominated mainly tomentose and leaved oak and upper Quercetum montanum where Quercus dalechampii prevails and the Quercus cerris .

 

Zone beech forests – Abies (Fagetalia)

The appearance of beech in Pinovo and Jena starts from the upper limits of the previous zone and reaches the sea height 1500 - 1650 m forming the Subarea Fagion moesiacae subband Fagetalia. Here, you can see three types of beech : abundant  Fagus sylvatica and Fagus moesiacae and rarely the Fagus orientalis.

Apart from the upper portion of the subarea (1400 - 1650 m) where the presence of hybrid fir (Abies borisii regis) and the rare white fir (Abies alba) creates the growth area Abieti - Fagitom. The entire rest of the region belongs to the growth area Fagetum moesiacae. Beyond dominated beech and fir species in the composition of woody vegetation zone species involved: Betula verrucosa, Acer pendula, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer platanoides, Acer hurganum, Acer obtusatum, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus torminalis, Tilia cordata, Taxus baccata, Ilex aquifolium, Evonymus latifolius, Viburnum lantana, Juniperus communis, Juniperus oxycedrus, Lonicera alpigena, etc. Within that zone, characteristic is the presence of the black forest (Pinus nigra) and the Pinus silvestris that dominate in shallow soil and prominent positions. The pinus sylvestris mixed generally in the beech forests of the area in appropriate locations. Instead, the black pine occurs only occasionally, in places both Pinovo bands and Jena.

The zone of beech forests - spruce, covers most of the main massif of Pinovo and Jena simultaneously forming in most cases the treeline with mixed stands of beech forest - hybrid fir (Fagus silvatica - Abies borisii regis).

 

Conifer zone with trees (Vaccinio - Picetalia) that fitted to all the territories and are resistant to frost

The neat appearance (mainly on the western side) of forest from forest pine (Pinus silvestris) above the forest zone beech – silver fir, up to the sea level 1900m includes them in the growth area Pinetum silvestris area of evergreen conifers (Vaccinio - Picetalia). This pine is in the southern regions, is also higher than the zone of beech forests - silver fir, but does not form a closed block, occurring scattered or in small groups.

 

Outside forest zone of high mountains (Astragalo - Acantholimon Italia)

In the area of free forest, above the forest zone beech - silver fir, presented extensively, species-rich, fertile alpine meadows, which almost all are a result of human influence. The Pinovo, Jenny and generally all the Voras was for centuries a center of rich nomadic livestock (outside the boundaries of the forest pastures). This contributed to the decline of treeline across the mountain range, which the higher should be installed between 1900 m and 2000 m sea level, an area that cannot be regarded as purely alpine. The presence of some small shrubs such as Juniperus nana, Daphne oleoides, Rosa pendulina, Acantholimon echinus etc. leads to the conclusion, to join the site area Astragalo - Acantholimonetalia.

In conclusion, the flora of the area consists of thoughtful a large number of genera and species at three floors, overfloor, middlefloor and underfloor, in all altitude zones. The great biodiversity of flora, results to find food and shelter many species of forest fauna.

In the flora and fauna of the two mountains we find the following :

 

 

 

Flora

• Beech (Fagus sylvatica)

• Oak (Quercus sessiliflora)

• Fir (Abies borisii regis),

• Fraxinus ornus

• Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)

• Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)

• Ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia)

• Kraniá (Cornus mas),

• pines (Pinus nigra)

• Vitiligo (Populus tremula),

• Willow (Salix sp.)

• “Dasopefko” (Pinus sylvestris)

• Celtis australis (Melikoukia)

• Betula pendula (birch)

• Quercus trojana (Macedonian oak)

• Taxus baccata (Itamos)

• Ilex aquifolium (holly)

• Buxus sempervirens (Pyxos)

• Juniperus communis alpina (Nano vounokedro)

• Juniperus excelsa (wild cypress)

• Junipeus sabina (wild cypress the Savinio)

• Daphne laureola laureola (Dafnoula the dafnoeidis)

• Salvia officinalis (Pharmaceutical Sage)

• Lonicera alpigena formanekiana (Honeysuckle of Formanek)

• Rosa sp.

• Calamitha grandiflora (kalaminthi the Grandiflora)

• Campanula sp.

• Centaurea sp.

• Festuca sp.

• Agrostis sp.

• fern (Pteridium aquilinum),

• Cicerbita muralis

• Orchis sp.

• Allium sp.

• Anemone sp.

 

 

 

Bushes

• Common Juniper (Juniperus communis)

• dwarfish Juniper (Juniperus nana)

• Cranberries Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus)

• Leptokaria (Corylus avellana)

• Pournari (Quercus coccifera)

• Fraxinus ornus

• Crataegus monogyna

• Ilex aquifolium

• Kraniá (Cornus mas)

• clematis (Clematis vitalba)

• Daphne (Daphne oleoides)

• Chrysoxylo (Rhus cotinus)

 

Fauna

 

Mammals

• Canis lupus (wolf)

• Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer)

• Felis silvestris morea (Wildcat of Moria)

• Martes foina (Ferret)

• Sus scrofa (wild boar)

• Ursus arctos (Bear)

• Vulpes vulpes crucigera (Fox)

• wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.),

• hare (Lepuseuropaeus Pallas),

• Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.),

• Ferret (Martes foina Erxleben),

• wildcat (Felis sylvestris Schreber),

• Lynx (Lynx Lynx Temmink)

• rats, mice and bats

 

Mammals that require special protection regime:

• bear, wild goat (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

• wildcat (paragraph IV EU Directive 92/43)

• wolf, Ferret (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

• Lynx (Berne Convention and paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

 

 

Birds

• Alectoris graeca (rock partridge)

• Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)

• Aquila heliaca heliaca (Imperial Eagle)

• Athene noctua (Little Owl)

• Buteo buteo buteo (Gerakina)

• Carduelis carduelis carduelis (Goldfinch)

• Carduelis chloris chloris (Oriole)

• Columba palumbus palumbus (Fassa)

• Corvus corax corax (Crow)

• Erithacus rubecula rubecula (Robin)

• Falco peregrinus peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)

• Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Bearded Vulture)

• Gyps fulvus (Griffon Vulture)

• Hieraaetus fasciatus (Bonelli's Eagle)

• Circaetus gallicus (Short-toed Eagle)

• Jynx torquilla torquilla (Stravolemos)

• Buteo rufinus rufinus (Aitogerakina)

• Pernis apivorus (European honey buzzard)

• Eremophila alpestris balcanica (Chionada)

• Bonasa bonasia (hazel grouse)

• Neophron percnopterus (Asproparis)

• Cuculus canorus (Cuckoo)

• Turdus merula merula (Blackbird)

 

Landscape development

The study "Timeless monitoring vegetation Special Protection Area" Mountains Jena - Pinovo of "Prefecture Pella", made by D. Trakolis, P. Platis and I. Meliadis (National Agricultural Research Foundation - Institute of Forest Research) and is included in the minutes of the 4th issue Panhellenic Rangeland Congress held in Volos (10-12 November 2004) from the Ministry of Rural Development and Food, DG Development and Protection of Forests and Natural Environment & the Greek Range and Pasture Society and was designed to monitor (monitoring) the changes in the decade from 1989 to 1999, showed the following results (pp. 363-368) :

The category of beech has undergone the fewest changes, whereas the other categories of land cover in general show a decrease. Particularly, in the case of different types of meadows, (in percentage changes) the category of grassland is decreasing 11.23% of the total area covered, followed by sparse scrub vegetation reduced to 6.58% of the area. A major problem in the whole range of work that carried out for the study area, was the presence of clouds.

Table 1. Timeless changes in vegetation cover rates on the total of each category.

Cover Category

Vegetation Cover Changes (%)

Reduction

Partial

Reduction

Without

Changes

Partial

Increase

Increase

Total

ForestLland

Of Beech

0,02

80,24

2,47

16,74

0,53

100,00

Forest Land

Of Oak

3,67

75,15

1,52

18,77

0,88

100,00

Turf-grassland

11,23

72,00

1,35

14,70

0,72

100,00

Dense Bushes

5,17

77,32

1,38

15,58

0,56

100,00

Sparse Bushes

6,58

68,85

1,95

22,25

0,37

100,00

Pefkoto Forest

 

It is a large beech forest, a small part of which is unexplored. Its situation is excellent, but because of external hazards is in slow degradation. In the area of Vora, as stated in the Special Management Plan, have been identified 157 important species. Of these, the Forest Pefkoto region identified 10 as listed in the table below :

 

 

TAXA

FORM

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION

CONDITIONS

DISTRIBUTION IN PLACE

Dianthus cruentus Griseb.

Turf

Balkans

 

Northwest of Pefkoto

Silene roemeri Friv.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

North northwest of Pefkoto

Cirsium appendiculatum Griseb.

Turf

Balkans

 

South northwest of Pefkoto

Gentianella bulgarica (Velen.) Holub.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

Good Plain,

South northwest of Pefkoto,

Ramonda nathaliae Pancic & Petrovic

Turf

Balkans

4

Foothills northeast of Pefkoto

Epilobium palustre L.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

South northwest of Pefkoto

Rhinanthus minor L.

Turf

Wider Spread

 

South northwest of Pefkoto
Good Plain

Rhinanthus pindicus (Sterneck) Soo

Turf

Balkans

1,3,4

South northwest of Pefkoto

Alchemilla gorcensis Pawl.

Turf

Balkans

 

South northwest of Pefkoto

Geum coccineum Sibth. & Sm.

Turf

Balkans

 

South northwest of Pefkoto

 

 

 

1 = Local Endemic

3 = Endemic of the Balkan (including some taxa that exist in 1-3 stations outside the Peninsula)

4 = wider spread, but in an extreme point of appearance, in this region

 

 

Avifauna

• Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

• Gerakaetos (Hieraaetus pennatus)

• Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)

• Boufos (Bubo bubo)

• Vounostachtara (Apus melba)

 


[1] System Analysis  to: Athanasiadis, N., Forest phytosociological, Giachoudi Publications, 1985, p. 44-56.

Both mountains belong to the NATURA 2000 network (GR1240002, SAC, Mountains Jenna and GR1240007, SPA, Mountains Jenna and Pinovo), and are wildlife refuges and Special Areas of Conservation. The area is also a Special Protection Area (SPA, GR1140008), Site of Community Importance, Biogenetic Reserve and Important Bird Area (GR038)[1].

 

[1] Forestry of Aridea (N. Mentis, I. Ioannides), Greek Ornithological Society.

On the edrge of Jena there is the waterfall and gorge of the Notia. We can make a stop there, before the climb. For both: dense vegetation, exceptional view of the valley of the Upper Almopia.

Extensive complex of mountains, well wooded, with mixed and coniferous forests. The situation of the place is excellent physical and the trend is slow degradation.

The forest complex shows less degradation compared to other land uses. The threats come from the winter tourist development, illegal hunting, expansion of the road network and illegal-logging. Access to the mountains, especially on rainy days is not easy. It has many sludges, at the points without sun, especially in the area of Jena. The signage is sufficient, although as we move upwards could legitimately be paid. 

Both mountains there is no infrastructure, not officially exploited by an authority or a private individual. No ski center or shelter.

We would not recommend a large-scale intervention, which would alter the natural landscape. Create refuge with possibility overnight stay. It can become educational tourism destination, with schools and universities.

Connection to the forests and mountains of Almopia : Aetochori, Periclean, Notia (gorge, waterfall), Archangel, Paiko.

Elaboration of general development plan that includes the use of all forest areas of Almopia.

The climate is continental, with rather cool summer.

Pinus nigra (Black pine)
Pinus sylvestris (Forest pine)
Acer campestre (Maple plain)
Acer platanoides (Water plane tree)
Acer pseudoplatanus (Pseftoplatanos)
Celtis australis (Melikoukia)
Betula pendula (Birch)
Fagus sylvatica orientalis (Eastern beech)
Quercus trojana (Macedonian oak)
Taxus baccata (Itamos)
Ilex aquifolium (holly)
Buxus sempervirens (Pyxos)
Juniperus communis alpina (Nano vounokedro)
Juniperus excelsa (Wild Cypress)
Junipeus sabina (Wild Cypress the Savinio)
Daphne laureola laureola (Dafnoula the dafnoeidis)
Salvia officinalis (Sage pharmaceutical)
Lonicera alpigena formanekiana (Honeysuckle of Formanek)
Rosa sp.
Calamitha grandiflora (kalaminthi the Grandiflora)
Campanula sp.
Centaurea sp.
Festuca sp.
Agrostis sp.
Orchis sp.
Allium  sp.

Anemone sp.

Mammals

Canis lupus (wolf)
Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer)
Felis silvestris morea (Wildcat of Moria)
Martes foina (Ferret)
Sus scrofa (wild boar)
Ursus arctos (Bear)
Vulpes vulpes crucigera (Fox)
Wild goat (Rupicapra rupicapra L.)
Hare (Lepuseuropaeus Pallas)
Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.)
Marten (Martes foina Erxleben)
Wildcat (Felis sylvestris Schreber)
Lynx (Lynx Lynx Temmink)
Rats, mice and bats

 

Mammals that require special protection regime:

Bear, wild goat (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)
Bobcat (paragraph IV EU Directive 92/43)
Wolf, marten (paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)
Lynx (Berne Convention and paragraph II Directive 92/43 EU)

Birds

Alectoris graeca (rock partridge)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)
Aquila heliaca heliaca (Imperial Eagle)
Athene noctua (Owl)
Buteo buteo buteo (Buzzard)
Carduelis carduelis carduelis (Goldfinch)
Carduelis chloris chloris (Oriole)
Columba palumbus palumbus (Fassa)
Corvus corax corax (Crow)
Erithacus rubecula rubecula (Robin)
Falco peregrinus peregrinus (Peregrine)
Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Bearded Vulture)
Gyps fulvus (Griffon Vulture)
Hieraaetus fasciatus (Bonelli's Eagle)
Circaetus gallicus (Fidaetos / Short-toed Eagle)
Jynx torquilla torquilla (Stravolemos)
- Buteo rufinus rufinus (Long-legged Buzzard)
Pernis apivorus (European honey buzzard)
Eremophila alpestris balcanica (Chionada)
Bonasa bonasia (Hazel grouse)
Neophron percnopterus (Asproparis / Egyptian Vulture)
Cuculus canorus (Cuckoo)

Turdus merula merula (Blackbird)

Πίνοβο – Τζένα