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Overview of species of flora/fauna in Almopia

Fauna
Name Family Genus Presence status Population Ecology Possible threats Distribution in Greece Info Place Flowers Needles Biological requirements Geographical spread Fruit Twigs Cones Buds Seeds Sheets use
Ursus arctos (Brown bear) The population of brown bears in Greece is estimated at 350 - 400. They live in two independent populations, which do not communicate with each other geographically. The largest population lives in the greater area of the Pindos mountain range and the second lives in the region of the Rhodope Mountains. In recent years there is consistent evidence for the presence of bears in the mountainous axis Vora-Olympos and Central Greece until Nafpaktos (areas where the species was not recorded in previous 70 years). The two main threats for the brown bear in Greece is the deliberate or accidental killing and loss / fragmentation of its habitat.

The red book of threatened animals of Greece, Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Greek Zoological Society, WWF Hellas, Greek Ornithological Society, Greek Herpetological Society, Institute of Speleological Research.

http://www.arcturos.gr/el/index.php?option=ozo_content&perform=view&id=5&Itemid=0

Pinovo Tzena, Black forest
Vulpes vulpes (Red fox)

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://wildlife-vetauth.blogspot.gr/p/blog-page.html

http://www.gpeppas.gr/thireftes/alepou/alepou.html

http://filotis.itia.ntua.gr/species/d/6195/?sort=site_name_gr

http://www.gbif.org/species/6164290

http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/carnivores/fox_red.html

http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=726934

Pinovo Tzena, Thermal baths of Loutraki
Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer)

 

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://www.arcturos.gr/el/index.php?option=ozo_content&perform=view&id=3&Itemid=8

http://filotis.itia.ntua.gr/species/d/6210/

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42395/0

http://www.arkive.org/roe-deer/capreolus-capreolus/

http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Capreolus_capreolus/

http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=305258

 

Pinovo Tzena, Thermal baths of Loutraki
Lynx lynx (Eurasian lynx)

Kominos, TH. & Godis, K. 2004. Preliminary study on the lynx (Lynx lynx) in Kaimaktsalan area. Final report. Program ETERPS, Arcturus.

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://www.arcturos.gr/el/index.php?option=ozo_content&perform=view&id=10&Itemid=6

http://www.elet.gr/pages/wp-content/uploads/59-Pages-from-3o-praktika.pdf

http://www.arkive.org/eurasian-lynx/lynx-lynx/

http://www.lcie.org/Large-carnivores/Eurasian-lynx

Pinovo Tzena, Thermal baths of Loutraki
Sus scrofa (Wild boar)

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://www.ihunt.gr/node/119

http://www.topeiros.gr/toperos/stena/pages/06thilastika.htm

Pinovo Tzena, Thermal baths of Loutraki
Canis lupus (Gray wolf) In Greece today, we estimate that 700 wolves live in almost all the continental terrain of country, north of Viotia. In these areas, the wolf survives in many small and isolated groups, with a greater presence in places with pastoralism or where there are still large mountain ranges without intense human presence. The reduction of natural prey of wolves (deer, roe deer, wild boar) due to anthropogenic factors, turns the wolf to the livestock. This, in conjunction with the gradual relaxation of prevention of damage leads to human-wolf conflicts. The hunt and the poisoned baits continue to be widespread practice of killing wolves although the law already since 1991, strictly prohibits their use. Also, the expansion of human activity even in inaccessible and remote areas, the large construction projects, the opening of extensive and uncontrolled network of forest roads, the expansion of pastures and the reduction of forest areas, gradually led to the degradation of the habitat of the wolf, threatening its survival.

Iliopoulos, G. 1999a. Distribution, population estimate and population trends of wolves in Greece. Interim Report, Project "WOLF", LIFE97 NAT / GR / 004249, Arcturus, Ministry of Agriculture- General Secretariat of Forestry and Natural Environment

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://www.callisto.gr/lykos.php

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3746/0

http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-037-01-0001.pdf

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Diana_Zlatanova/publication/241704792_HABITAT_VARIABLES_ASSOCIATED_WITH_WOLF_(CANIS_LUPUS_L.)_DISTRIBUTION_AND_ABUNDANCE_IN_BULGARIA/links/00b7d51cad7221e271000000.pdf

http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/graywolf

http://www.arcturos.gr/el/index.php?option=ozo_content&perform=view&id=6&Itemid=3

http://www.atticapark.com/zoo-details/5NQD/Grey-wolf

http://www.ypeka.gr/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=UV6mEQD1xaM%3d&tabid=596&language=el-GR

Pinovo Tzena, Black forest
Sciurus vulgaris (Red squirrel)

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://wildlife-vetauth.blogspot.gr/p/blog-page.html

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/20025/0

http://www.naturagraeca.com/ws/84,130,58,1,1,%CE%9F-%CE%BA%CF%8C%CE%BA%CE%BA%CE%B9%CE%BD%CE%BF%CF%82-%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%AF%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%82-%CF%83%CF%84%CE%B7%CE%BD-%CE%95%CE%BB%CE%BB%CE%AC%CE%B4%CE%B1

https://www.katakali.net/drupal/?q=thilastika/skioyros

 

Pinovo Tzena, Black forest, Thermal baths of Loutraki
Lepus europaeus (European hare) λαγιδών

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://wildlife-vetauth.blogspot.gr/p/blog-page.html

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41280/0

http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=552501

http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=305525

Pinovo Tzena, Black forest, Thermal baths of Loutraki
Rupicapra rupicapra (Wild goat)

Valakos, S., P. Pafilis, P. Georgiakakis, G. Papamichail, P. Lyberakis, Ch. Simou and K. Taxeidis, Wild Mammals, University of Athens, 2012.

Tsounis, G., Mammals of Greece, Publishing Pergamini.

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/39255/0×

http://www.env-edu.gr/Chapters.aspx?id=88

http://www.biodiversity-info.gr/index.php/el/greek-nature-and-biodiversity/species/fauna/mammals/rupicapra-rupicapra

http://www.arcturos.gr/el/index.php?option=ozo_content&perform=view&id=8&Itemid=4

http://pixabay.com/el/%CE%B1%CE%B3%CF%81%CE%B9%CF%8C%CE%B3%CE%B9%CE%B4%CE%BF-rupicapra-rupicapra-gams-60083/

http://dasarxeio.com/2014/09/03/758-4

Thermal baths of Loutraki, Black forest, Pinovo Tzena
Testudo hermanni (Mediterranean turtle or tortoise Hermann) Epirus Greece, Peloponnese, Evia, Ionian Islands. It is likely to have been introduced by humans to the islands, apart from allocation.

Arnold, N.E, Reptiles and amphibians of Europe, Princeton University Press, 2003.

Valakos, ED, P. Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, P. Lymberakis, and P. Maragou, The Amphibians and Reptiles of Greece, Edition Chimaira, 2008.

Pafilis, P. And S. Valakos, Amphibians and reptiles of Greece: Identification Guide, Patakis, 2012.

Dimitropoulos, A. and G. Ioannides, Reptiles of Greece and Cyprus, Publications koan, 2002.

http://www.herpetofauna.gr/index.php?module=cats&page=read&id=70

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21648/0

http://tortoise.org/archives/herman.html

http://www.arkive.org/hermanns-tortoise/testudo-hermanni/

http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/wp-content/uploads/file/Accounts/crm_5_059_hermanni_v1_2011.pdf

http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Testudo_hermanni/

http://www.hermannihaven.com/#!western-vs-eastern/c1mxv

http://www.britishcheloniagroup.org.uk/caresheets/caremed

http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=551866

Testudo graeca (Greek Tortoise) Central and Eastern Macedonia, Thrace, Thassos, Samothrace, Lemnos, Lesvos, Chios, Samos, Leros, Kos, Symi, Salamina. Also introduced in several areas and islands off distribution so individual populations observed in Crete, Euboea, Peloponnese, possibly elsewhere.

Arnold, N.E, Reptiles and amphibians of Europe, Princeton University Press, 2003.

Valakos, ED, P. Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, P. Lymberakis, and P. Maragou, The Amphibians and Reptiles of Greece, Edition Chimaira, 2008.

Pafilis, P. And S. Valakos, Amphibians and reptiles of Greece: Identification Guide, Patakis, 2012.

Dimitropoulos, A. and G. Ioannides, Reptiles of Greece and Cyprus, Publications koan, 2002.

http://www.herpetofauna.gr/index.php?module=cats&page=read&id=69&sid=67

http://www.katakali.net/drupal/?q=erpeta/elliniki-xelona

http://www.arkive.org/greek-tortoise/testudo-graeca/

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21646/1

http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Testudo&species=graeca

http://www.amasquefa.com/uploads/Testudo_graeca_ibera439.pdf

http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=551865

Falco peregrinus (Peregrine falcon) Falconidae

Falco

The population of the species in our country is estimated to range between 100-250 couples. It nests in cliffs and in tall trees. It feeds mainly on open land by hunting small or medium-sized birds. Major threats considered using insecticides through the food chain reaching its kind, the illegal hunting and the illegal trade in eggs and chicks for falconry.

Akriotis T., 1995. Greek biotopes, the avifauna and its protection. In: Bonazountas M. and A. Katsaitis, Selected environmental management. Goulandris Museum of Natural History (GMNH).

Deligeorgis I., 2004. The avifauna of the northern part of the river Loudias and the effect of human activities on it. Master Thesis, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki.

S. Kazantzidis., Tsiakiris P., Dimalexis A., 2003. The avifauna in the pseudoalpine grasslands of Tzena - Pinovo Mountains (Greece) and conservation actions

In: Platis P. And Th. Papachristou (version), Proceedings of the 3rd Panhellenic Rangeland Congress, Karpenisi, 4-6 September 2002, pp. 469-476. Ministry of Rural Development and Food - Greek Range and Pasture Society.

Kominos Th., 1995. Kythira - On the way of birds. Greek Ornithological Society, Athens.

http://www.arkive.org/peregrine-falcon/falco-peregrinus/

http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Falco-peregrinus

http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Peregrine_Falcon/id

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/45354964/0

http://globalraptors.org/grin/SpeciesResults.asp?specID=8248

http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=175604

http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/bird/fape/all.html

http://www.destinationcrete.gr/el/chlorida-a-panida/cretan-eagles

http://filotis.itia.ntua.gr/species/d/5708/

http://www.poulia.info/2011/10/blog-post_6665.html

Pinovo Tzena
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) Eaglet (Accipitridae)

Eagle (Aquila)

In Greece the golden eagle was common until the early 19th century throughout the mainland and on certain islands of the Aegean and Ionian seas. The assessment of the situation of the population for the decade in 1990, estimates that has been reduced to 60-80. It is found in mountains with rocky areas and open wooded slopes at altitudes from 400 to 1800 meters.The species maintains a relatively small territory (approximately 50 km2) during playback, near the site nesting, while during the summer, especially after the independence of the small of the nest, increasing the extent of foraging area. Apart from the baits, the golden eagle is threatened by illegal hunting. Indirect threat to the species is to reduce populations of prey due to agricultural intensification and abandonment of mountain farming.

Akriotis T., 1995. Greek biotopes, the avifauna and its protection. In: Bonazountas M. and A. Katsaitis, Selected environmental management. Goulandris Museum of Natural History (GMNH).

Deligeorgis I., 2004. The avifauna of the northern part of the river Loudias and the effect of human activities on it. Master Thesis, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki.

S. Kazantzidis., Tsiakiris P., Dimalexis A., 2003. The avifauna in the pseudoalpine grasslands of Tzena - Pinovo Mountains (Greece) and conservation actions

In: Platis P. And Th. Papachristou (version), Proceedings of the 3rd Panhellenic Rangeland Congress, Karpenisi, 4-6 September 2002, pp. 469-476. Ministry of Rural Development and Food - Greek Range and Pasture Society.

Kominos Th., 1995. Kythira - On the way of birds. Greek Ornithological Society, Athens.

https://www.katakali.net/drupal/ierakomorfa/xrysaetos

http://www.arkive.org/golden-eagle/aquila-chrysaetos/

http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3537

http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Aquila_chrysaetos/

http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=175407

http://globalraptors.org/grin/SpeciesResults.asp?specID=8162

http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/golden_eagle/golden_eagle.htm

http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Aquila-chrysaetos

Pinovo Tzena
Aquila heliaca (Imperial Eagle) Eaglet (Accipitridae)

Eagle (Aquila)

The Imperial Eagle is a globally threatened species and the rarest predator in the country recently stopped nesting. The European population is estimated between 320-570 pairs with a general downward trend. In our country there are regular observations Imperial Eagle in winter and during migration, but little evidence of possible nesting. This species is linked to traditional agricultural landscape of the plains, where cereal crops mixed with meadows and small natural wetlands. It feeds on small mammals (European ground squirrel, rabbits, rodents), which looks for in open areas. It nests in large trees of the lowland and foothill zone. The major threats to the species are shrinking habitat due to intensification of agriculture, the destruction of places nesting in lowland and foothill areas (large trees) and illegal use of poisoned baits.

Akriotis T., 1995. Greek biotopes, the avifauna and its protection. In: Bonazountas M. and A. Katsaitis, Selected environmental management. Goulandris Museum of Natural History (GMNH).

Deligeorgis I., 2004. The avifauna of the northern part of the river Loudias and the effect of human activities on it. Master Thesis, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki.

S. Kazantzidis., Tsiakiris P., Dimalexis A., 2003. The avifauna in the pseudoalpine grasslands of Tzena - Pinovo Mountains (Greece) and conservation actions

In: Platis P. And Th. Papachristou (version), Proceedings of the 3rd Panhellenic Rangeland Congress, Karpenisi, 4-6 September 2002, pp. 469-476. Ministry of Rural Development and Food - Greek Range and Pasture Society.

Kominos Th., 1995. Kythira - On the way of birds. Greek Ornithological Society, Athens.

http://www.poulia.info/2011/10/blog-post_1641.html

http://www.ornithologiki.gr/page_cn.php?tID=2369

http://www.kykpee.org/istoselides/istoselides_greek/eidos_tou_mina_to_eidos_tou_dekemvri_2013.html

http://www.arkive.org/imperial-eagle/aquila-heliaca/

http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/factsheet/22696048

http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Aquila_heliaca/

http://www.eagledirectory.org/species/eastern_imperial_eagle.html

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/wildbirds/action_plans/docs/aquila_heliaca.pdf

http://www.globalraptors.org/grin/SpeciesResults.asp?specID=8166

http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?avibaseid=469DCF57248A1C69

http://www.planetofbirds.com/accipitriformes-accipitridae-imperial-eagle-aquila-heliaca

http://www.biodiversity-info.gr/index.php/el/greek-nature-and-biodiversity/species/fauna/birds/aquila-heliaca

https://wwfaction.wordpress.com/tag/%CE%B2%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%BB%CE%B1%CE%B5%CF%84%CF%8C%CF%82/

Pinovo Tzena
Circaetus gallicus (Short-toed snake eagle) Eaglet (Accipitridae)

Kirkaetos (Circaetus)

The Short-toed is migratory species. In Greece the total population of the species is estimated to be 300- 500 pairs. The Short-toed Eagle feeds mainly on snakes and lizards that it finds in areas with sparse arboreal or shrubby vegetation. Degradation or destruction of food areas is perhaps the main threat to the species. The causes of degradation are usually:a) the loss of spaces in or near cultivated areas which are normally reptile habitats,b) the closure of glade in the forestc) afforestation, restricting the distribution of herpetofauna.

Akriotis T., 1995. Greek biotopes, the avifauna and its protection. In: Bonazountas M. and A. Katsaitis, Selected environmental management. Goulandris Museum of Natural History (GMNH).

Deligeorgis I., 2004. The avifauna of the northern part of the river Loudias and the effect of human activities on it. Master Thesis, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki.

S. Kazantzidis., Tsiakiris P., Dimalexis A., 2003. The avifauna in the pseudoalpine grasslands of Tzena - Pinovo Mountains (Greece) and conservation actions

In: Platis P. And Th. Papachristou (version), Proceedings of the 3rd Panhellenic Rangeland Congress, Karpenisi, 4-6 September 2002, pp. 469-476. Ministry of Rural Development and Food - Greek Range and Pasture Society.

Kominos Th., 1995. Kythira - On the way of birds. Greek Ornithological Society, Athens.

http://bird-guide.l-studio.gr/sp.php?ln=gr&sp_id=89

http://www.arkive.org/short-toed-snake-eagle/circaetus-gallicus/

http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=32257

http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Circaetus-gallicus

http://www.europeanraptors.org/raptors/short_toed_eagle.html

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22734216/0

https://www.katakali.net/drupal/ierakomorfa/fidaetos

http://www.edessacity.gr/tourism/pella/wetland/ed801-2-wbirds3_el.htm

Pinovo Tzena
Gyps fulvus (Griffon vulture) Eaglet (Accipitridae)

Vulture (Gyps)

In Greece, the population of Gyps fulvus in the 80 estimated at 450 pairs. Recent estimates put the population of the species to no more than 300 couples or others, at 400-500 pairs or even lower numbers. In Greece, the population of Gyps fulvus in the 80 estimated at 450 pairs. Recent estimates put the population of the species to no more than 300 couples or others, at 400-500 pairs or even lower numbers. Species which colonize. This species occurs in open areas with sparse vegetation and nesting on steep cliffs typically with low altitude. The foraging area typically extends 30-40 km radius around the colony, but wandering people searching for food may occur much farther. It feeds on carrion feed medium or large-sized animals such as horses and cattle. It mainly prefers the soft parts of dead animals, showing a marked preference for offal. Its acute of vision, volatile habits and especially the gregarious behavior, it helps to identify the corpses before sepsis, which is particularly useful in hot climates where dead animals are sources of infection. The main threats to this species are poisoned baits and poaching and the abandonment of traditional forms of farming.

Akriotis T., 1995. Greek biotopes, the avifauna and its protection. In: Bonazountas M. and A. Katsaitis, Selected environmental management. Goulandris Museum of Natural History (GMNH).

Deligeorgis I., 2004. The avifauna of the northern part of the river Loudias and the effect of human activities on it. Master Thesis, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki.

S. Kazantzidis., Tsiakiris P., Dimalexis A., 2003. The avifauna in the pseudoalpine grasslands of Tzena - Pinovo Mountains (Greece) and conservation actions

In: Platis P. And Th. Papachristou (version), Proceedings of the 3rd Panhellenic Rangeland Congress, Karpenisi, 4-6 September 2002, pp. 469-476. Ministry of Rural Development and Food - Greek Range and Pasture Society.

Kominos Th., 1995. Kythira - On the way of birds. Greek Ornithological Society, Athens.

http://www.poulia.info/2011/10/blog-post_1474.html

http://bird-guide.l-studio.gr/sp.php?ln=gr&sp_id=87

http://www.arkive.org/eurasian-griffon/gyps-fulvus

http://www.europeanraptors.org/raptors/eurasian_griffon_vulture.html

http://www.planetofbirds.com/accipitriformes-accipitridae-griffon-gyps-fulvus

http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3378

Pinovo Tzena
Pernis apivorus (European Honey Buzzard) Axipitrides (Accipitridae)

Pernis

The European Honey Buzzard is a migratory species.It comes to Greece mainly early May and leaves in late September in Africa (south of Sahara) where there passes the winter. The population in Greece is estimated at 250 couples with declining trend in recent years (Gensbol 1992). It woodland species. It nests in trees and prefers deciduous and particularly beech. It feeds mainly on insects (particularly with wasps) and rarely reptiles, amphibians and fruit. Usually hunts in open areas with sparse vegetation, in clearings or at the edges of the forest near the ground. The replacement of open oak forests, with reforestation and general reductions of meadows reduces gradually the feeding areas of the species.

Akriotis T., 1995. Greek biotopes, the avifauna and its protection. In: Bonazountas M. and A. Katsaitis, Selected environmental management. Goulandris Museum of Natural History (GMNH).

Deligeorgis I., 2004. The avifauna of the northern part of the river Loudias and the effect of human activities on it. Master Thesis, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki.

S. Kazantzidis., Tsiakiris P., Dimalexis A., 2003. The avifauna in the pseudoalpine grasslands of Tzena - Pinovo Mountains (Greece) and conservation actions

In: Platis P. And Th. Papachristou (version), Proceedings of the 3rd Panhellenic Rangeland Congress, Karpenisi, 4-6 September 2002, pp. 469-476. Ministry of Rural Development and Food - Greek Range and Pasture Society.

Kominos Th., 1995. Kythira - On the way of birds. Greek Ornithological Society, Athens.

http://www.europeanraptors.org/raptors/european_honey_buzzard.html

http://www.poulia.info/2011/10/blog-post_1384.html

http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3334

http://www.katakali.net/drupal/ierakomorfa/sfikiaris

http://filotis.itia.ntua.gr/species/d/5667

 

Black forest
Flora
Name Family Genus Presence status Population Ecology Possible threats Distribution in Greece Info Place Flowers Needles Biological requirements Geographical spread Fruit Twigs Cones Buds Seeds Sheets use
Platanus orientalis (Oriental plane) Platanaceae 

Platanus  

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Λουτρά Λουτρακίου
Epilobium palustre

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/marsh-willowherb  

http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EPPA 

http://eol.org/pages/582999/overview 

http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/skye/onagraceae/epilobium-palustre.htm  

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Epilobium+palustre 

http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-taxon=Epilobium+palustre 

Black forest
Epilobium angustifolium (Rosebay willowherb) Onagraceae

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

The flowers and leaves of the plant have medicinal propertiesThe properties of the plant was known from old times, and refer to books before 1880. But it had forgotten and remained in obscurity until the time that the positive effects in the treatment of prostate, emerged from the Austrian botanist Maria Trempen. The sequel was impressive in Austria and Germany, and later in America, that the herb became coveted.The herb contains flavonoids, especially kuepferol derivatives, quercetin and myricetin. Scientists have also detected several esters, sitosterloli and glycosides. It has antibacterial activity, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant. It is used in treating hyperplasia prostate problems, in cystitis and nephritis. It makes good antiinflammatory action due to infections of the urinary tract infections in the bronchi, the mucous colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. Also it is beneficial in diarrhea and incontinence in men and women. It helps to maintain healthy bladder kidney and prostate.
Calamitha grandiflora (Large-flowered calamint) Labiatae 

Sfikas, G., Wild Flowers of Crete, Efstathadis Group, 1999.

Giachakopoulou, M., Aromatic and medicinal plants of the family Labiatae (Labiatae), Department of Greenhouse Crops and Floriculture, Faculty of Technology and Agriculture, TEI of Crete, 2007.

[http://nefeli.lib.teicrete.gr/browse/steg/theka/2007/GiachakopoulouMagda...

Orchis morio Orchidaceae

Ganiatsas, K., Systematic Botany (spermatophytes), Thessaloniki, 1967.  http://www.greekorchids.gr/Or_morio.htm

Atropos Belladonna SOLANACEAE The family includes, herbaceous plants and shrubs. They have leaves alternately or opposite one another and the male-female flowers, usually in the form of rays with stamens. Fruit has much seed, the rail is fleshy seamless. Fruit: Atropa rail (2 kinds, one Greek). The most famous in northern Greece, in the forests or forested sites curbs, occurring species is A. Belladonna (Atropos the belladonna) from the privative letter a and “trepein” = severs the thread of life, ie kill, belladonna = nice lady from status of contents atropine which expands the eye pupil. Dioscourides (who investigate in detail the nature) gave the plant that name. The genus name refers to the Fate Atropos, of the Greek mythology, the rigid cutting the thread of life, suggesting the activity of the venom.

Ganiatsas, K., Systematic Botany (spermatophytes), Thessaloniki, 1967.

Fruit has much seed, the rail is fleshy seamless. The Atropa belladona is extremely poisonous. The high degree of toxicity occurs in all parts of the plant, especially the seeds, roots and leaves.It is known for centuries as a poison, and also served as a source of production of some drugs such as Yoskiamini, but it is very dangerous to use unless used by skilled physicists.The poisoning symptoms from belladonna is dry and hot mouth, flushed skin, nausea, confusion and delirium.Homeopaths recommend belladonna for diseases that have similar symptoms. All parts of the belladonna used in homeopathic treatment. The plant pressed with juice, mixed with alcohol to dissolve.
Pteridium aquilinum (Common bracken) Polypodiaceae 

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Μαύρο δάσος
Juniperus oxycedrus (Prickly juniper) Cupressaceae

Juniperus

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Καλή Πεδιάδα
Cornus mas (Cornelian cherry) Cornaceae 

Cornus

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου
Tilia tomentosa (Silver lime) Tiliaceae

Tilia

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Good Plain and Forest Promachon-Lykostomo
Corylus avellana (Common hazel) Betulaceae

Corylus

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Καλή Πεδιάδα
Ostrya carpinifolia (Hop Hornbeam) Betulaceae

Ostrya

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Καλή Πεδιάδα
Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore) Aceraceae

Acer

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Καλή Πεδιάδα
Acer campestre (field maple) Aceraceae 

Acer

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Καλή Πεδιάδα
Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam) Betulaceae

Carpinus

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece,

S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Καλή Πεδιάδα
Fraxinus ornus (South European flowering ash) Oleaceae 

Fraxinus

Gardening for All: practical encyclopedia for flowers-plants-trees-vegetables, Publishing Alcyone.

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Sfikas, C., Trees and Shrubs of Greece, Efstathadis Group, 2000.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Μαύρο δάσος
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)

Fagus

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Public Forest Management Study of Almopia.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Καλή Πεδιάδα, Μαύρο δάσος Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Males are spherical, yellow as red torn heads that grow in the axils leaves of annual shoots. Females in the form of head divided, they have short and thick stalks and topping the annual twig. Flowering time: April - May, after the leaves emerge. Requires fresh soils, rich in mineral nutrients, constant high humidity in the air and media climate that is coming to the Atlantic. It is durable in the shade, most of all broadleafs. In the middle and southern Europe, from Spain to the Crimea and from Scotland and Scandinavia to Sicily and Greece. In Greece: Mount Beech and north, in beech forests of central and western areas of the country.The Beech is the main component of the forested areas of the subject forest. Establish compact and contiguous clusters in the spread of both pure and in mixed form mainly with elati, pine forest, oak (leaved, straight-bark) and black pine. The mix of these species with beech tree varies between wide limits ie per person, groups, scrubs up small clusters. It finds very good and favorable conditions and climatic environment, high growth for this and establish the final compound SCALE. Considered kind of progressive evolution, there is absolutely all the deeper, fertile and humid places and well maintained despite unfavorable at times anthropogenic influences. Nuts strongly triangular shiny, reddish at 2-3 in woody cup-covered spit-like bracts. Maturity: September - October time after flowering. Αlternately, two-row, oval, length 4-10 cm. And width from 2,5 to 7 cm. Sharp-blunt bosom. Base: broad wedge as rounded. Upper surface is dark green. The bottom surface is a lighter color. Edges: slightly wavy. Petiole short length of 0,8 -1,2 cm. The wood of the beech has many uses as fuel, produces excellent charcoal and wood, beech high trunk after undergone drying to reduce the disadvantage of the flexibility, is suitable for furniture, turning works etc.
Quercus sessiliflora (Q. Petraea) Sessile oak Fagaceae

Quercus

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Καλή Πεδιάδα Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Males: a hanging willow green catkins in average annual twig. Females: single or every 2-3 to top the annual shoots in the axils of leaves. Flowering time: April - June. Fertile, quite loose and fairly deep soils. Type : “semi-frined-light”. At a young age are suffering from late frosts. Almost all over Europe, from Norway and southern Sweden until the middle of Russia, Black Sea, Asia South Italy, northeastern Spain and Great Britain. In Greece : the North Peloponnese (Kalavryta) and north. Fruit (acorn), thin walled, small mattresses, acute-top scales, back thick plush. Acorns oval clearly acute-top. Maturation: late September to early October during the flowering period. Fall: immediately after maturation. Dark green with small sparse freckles, naked. Alternately, reverse ovoid to oval, length 8-12 cm. And width 5-7 cm. Base : wedge as circular. Top : wide rounded. Outskirts : shallow lobed or deeply lobed half part. The lateral nerves usually end at lobes. Upper surface : dark green, glossy. Lower surface : a lighter color. Petiole 1,5-2,5 cm long length. The wood is important, which is used for construction purposes in shipbuilding and wine barrels.
Quercus coccifera (Κermes oak) Fagaceae

Quercus

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Πίνοβο – Τζένα, Λουτρά Λουτρακίου, Καλή Πεδιάδα, Μαύρο δάσος Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Males : Hanging in catkins on the basis of annual shoots. Females: single or every 2 in the leaf axils. Flowering time: April - May. “Friend-light” type with limited requirements from the ground. The east by-Mediterranean region. In Greece in the Mediterranean zone and the lower sub band, of the by-Mediterranean vegetation zone. Fruit (acorn), with scales commodity-form, lifted upright or tilted backwards. Acorns: oblong or broad cylindrical, pointed vivid brown. Maturation: October - November of the second year after flowering. Fall: immediately after maturation. Young twigs slightly hairy, later naked. Alternately, oval, oblong leathery, length 1,5-4 cm. And width 0,5-2,5 cm. Base rounded as heart-form. Top ending with thorn. Wavy edges with tricks and spiky jagged or smooth. The upper surface is dark green and naked. Down lighter color. Stem very short length of 1-5cm.  Besides producing red dye, the acorns of oak used in medicine as an astringent. Also holly used for grazing goats. The yew is highly resistant against overgrazing developing defense mechanisms such strong teeth on the leaves. Moreover, it is highly durable dry-type, since it grows in desert limits (Syria, Jordan, Libya). Furthermore, it germinates readily after a fire, playing an important ecological role, since it protects the soil from erosion.
Quercus pubescens (Downy oak) Fagaceae

Quercus

­­­

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

http://www.alekati.gr/%CE%B4%CF%81%CF%85%CF%82_%CF%87%CE%BD%CE%BF%CF%8E%CE%B4%CE%B7%CF%82

 

 

Thermal baths of Loutraki, Black forest, Pinovo Tzena Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Males : in willow green catkins hanging the basis of annual twig. Females : single or by 2-4 (5) on top of annual shoots. Flowering : May. A little demanding on soil nutrients and depth. Type :“friend-light”.  In southern Europe, the Crimea, the Caucasus and Asia. In almost all of Greece. Fruit (acorn) stemless, hemispherical with numerous scales, pressed onto the cup as onions, thick. Acorns : oval and pointed. Maturing : late September - early October during the flowering period. Fall immediately after curing. Young twigs densely hairy. Alternately, conversely oblong reverse ovate, 5-10 cm long. And width 4-6 cm. Base : diverse. Top : rounded. Maximum width : in the middle to the top. Edge lobed : with lobes rounded or acute, sometimes toothed and within different depths. Lateral nerves : usually end lobes. Upper surface : dark green, usually naked. Down surface : light green, thick, fluffy furry. Young leaves nap on both sides. Petiole 1 cm long. Fluffy. The bark of oak is one of the most astringent drugs that exist in nature. It is an excellent medicine against diarrhea, gonorrhea and bleeding. Herbal teas made from the skin helping to diseases such as tuberculosis, tonsillitis the chilblain etc. Excessive internal use for a long time hurt the stomach causing heartburn.The acorns are very good feed for animals. The wood is an excellent firewood, for the people who live next to the forest. Well trees give high quality wood for woodworking and furniture industry. Its wood is compact heavy, dark blond with prominent formations due to the variety of annual rings. Used in many applications and almost all wooden structures.
Betula pendula (Silver birch)  Betulaceae

­­­Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Thermal baths of Loutraki, Black forest, Pinovo Tzena Unisexual. Is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Males : in brownish catkins hanging per 1-3 on the tops of macro-sector. They are shown since autumn last year. Females are green initially upright and later hanging Catkin, on top of the annual short-Leaf-sectors. Flowering in March - May. Occurs in dry soil, poor soil and very wet soils. It shows the best growth in fresh, deep sandy soils. It is “friend-light” type, with requirements in light greater than all broadleaved. Europe and Asia. It is the only species of the genus Betula that appears in our country and specifically in the Rhodopes, Bald Mountain, Pangaeum, Voras, Paiko. Cones cylindrical, light brown to brown. The nuts are light brown with side flaps 2-3 times wider. Maturing : in June - August during the flowering period Thin, usually hanging, reddish shiny, strong glandular. Conical, usually acute sticky, brownish. Alternately, bare, triangular-shaped or rhombic, strongly acid-peaks, length 3-7 cm. They are minutes, roughly double serrated sides and smooth the base. Young sticky due to glandular secretions that later lowered. Leaves are cordate, hairy. Birch is a natural painkiller that contains salicylic acid, a compound found in aspirin. The decoction of buds and young birch leaves, is used in traditional medicine as a bactericide, healing and antiseptic. Among others, the leaves of birch have a diuretic effect. Help burn fat and reduce uric acid. The young leaves of birch are rich in saponins. They contain a diuretic flavonic derivative, the hyperoside, terpenes and tannins. The bark contains betoulinoli (camphor of betoulas) and a glycoside (the betoulodisi). Flavonoids containing fresh birch leaves assist in metabolic activation and release the body from that charged it. The extract of young birch leaves results in combat fluid retention mainly through increased metabolic actions. The leaves of birch are effective cure for cystitis and other urinary tract infections. Also eliminate the excess water from the body. Because of the cleaning and diuretic action, this plant has been used for gout, rheumatism and mild arthritic pain.
Abies borisii regis (abies alba X Abies cephalonica, populous hybridogenus) Bulgarian fir Pinaceae

Abies

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Public Forest Management Study of Almopia.

 

Black forest, Pinovo Tzena Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Males are yellow - colored Catkin. Females : yellow-green, erect form cones. Flowering : April - May. Τhe lower branches slightly sharp tips or incision. In the upper branches needles are sharp tips and bigger. The biological requirements sometimes approaching to white and sometimes to the Kefalonia elati. Appears at altitudes of 800-1,800 m, in the mountains with an annual rainfall of over 1000 mm. In South Bulgaria and the former South Yugoslavia. In Greece : sporadically in the Peloponnese, in Timfristos in Beech and from there north to the border or in pure stands.Elati is the second consecutive main component of forested areas of the forest. In the forest, the Elati does not form pure stands but is found with pure and mixed form mainly beech and secondarily with black and pinus (with oak). Cylindrical, 15 cm long. Variegated, slightly conical shape and topped with a little resin. Maturing : in September - October during the flowering period. Fall seed after ripening. Oval, form real vertebrae, with little resin. Triangular, oval, open brown, with essential oils cysts and flap around them as chlamida. 
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) Pinaceae

Pinus

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Black forest, Pinovo Tzena Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. The males are yellow, oval Catkin. Females : reddish, stalked, erect form cones every 2. Flowering : April - May. Per 2 in short-twig, length 4-7 m. Pointed, semicircular, rotated. The external surface is dark green and turquoise interior. Shelf life : 3-6 years. Species with high adaptation capacity. It is not susceptible to frosts and heat waves. In northern and middle Europe and in North Asia. In Greece : in Northern Greece and especially in Perivoli, in Pieria, Olympus, Vermio, Voras, Lailias, Orvilos and Rodopi. Conical, length 3-6 cm., with curved stalk, turned in downward. Immature are green and immature brown. Maturing : in October with November of the second year of flowering. Fall seed in March - April next year. Elongated length of 6-12 mm. Reddish, with or without resin. Elongated oval, angular, black, yellowish or different colors. Shiny on one side with flap keeps as nippers. The wood is known as red wood, reddish inside and hard, and is used as raw material for the manufacture of wood pulp for paper, in building construction and shipbuilding.
Pinus nigra (Black pine) Pinaceae

Pinus

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Dafis, S., The forests of Greece, Goulandris Natural History Museum, 2010.

Black forest, Pinovo Tzena Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. The males have red-yellow color, oval Catkin. The females are rarely more every 2 (3-4) with a small stalk, form small cones. Flowering : May - June. 5 per short-branches, 5-10 cm in length. Straight, rigid, with jagged edges. They grow on the tops of the twigs. The cross section of the needles is triangular. Coniferous, more durable than all Greek pines in the shade. It needs deep fresh, silicate soils. It is resistant to frost, snow and winds. It is more demanding to moisture and soil nutrient data from the pine forest and prefers areas with high cloud cover. Montenegro, Serbia, South Bulgaria and Albania. In Greece not create forests but appear along with forest pine and beech, in Voras, in the area of Aridaia (beautiful Meadow and Upper Peternik) and Rodopi (position Tsichla) Cylindrical, light brown, 8-14 cm long. With short peduncle per 1-4 diverge or hanging from the branches. Carpels broad wedge, leathery, and apical hub. Maturing : in September to October of the second year of flowering. Fall of the seeds : immediately after ripening. Elongated oval pointed, red-yellow color with resin. Length 5-8 mm. With double flap. The wood is suitable for construction timber, furniture and investments. It could be used in reforestation, for lifting the treeline in high mountains of Northern Greece with silicate rocks, and for water production.
Castanea sativa (Chestnut) Fagaceae

Castanea

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Black forest Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. Inflorescences spikes-forms, length 12-20 cm. Flowering: mid-May to mid-July. Loose soils, rich in clay, humus and phosphorus acidic as neutral. It is a type semi-shade tree and sensitive at late and early frosts. The natural geographical spread because of the expansion of human, is not yet known. Today occur in southern Europe, Caucasus, Asia and North Africa. In Greece: the mountains almost throughout the country. The chestnut tree is very old as evidenced by several findings of the Bronze Age. It was the food of the poor in the Middle Ages. Nuts shiny brown, with leathery shell, pointed, edible, every 2-3 in a woody cup. The cup is covered by dense thorns and opens after curing into 4 irregular leaflets. Maturing : in October during the flowering period. The size of chestnuts has to do with moisture, variety and soil composition. Alternately, two-row length 12 to 20 cm. and width 3-6 cm. They are narrow ovate to lance-like, sharp peaks-based wedge. Upper surface: dark green naked. Bottom: with a lighter color on top hairy, later naked. Edge: strongly serrated. Pairs nerve 15-20. For the harvest of the cast that is obtained by shaking the fruit of the tree and then becomes picking by hand. Some pave nets for easier picking. Fresh chestnuts contain 50% water, 45% carbohydrates and 5% vegetable oil. Eaten grilled or boiled. It is used in confectionery, cooking in various recipes. These are flour, mainly in various parts of Asia.
Pinus peuce (Macedonian pine) Pine Tree (Pinaceae)

Pinus

­­­

Athanasiadis, N., Forest botany II: Trees and shrubs of forests in Greece, S. Giachoudis & SIA O.E., 1986.

Dafis, S., The forests of Greece, Goulandris Natural History Museum, 2010.

Thermal baths of Loutraki Unisexual. It is a plant that in the same individual has male and female flowers. The males have red-yellow color, oval Catkin. The females are rarely more every 2 (3-4) with a small stalk, form small cones. Flowering : May - June. 5 per short-branches, 5-10 cm in length. Straight, rigid, with jagged edges. They grow on the tops of the twigs. The cross section of the needles is triangular.  Coniferous, more durable than all Greek pines in the shade. It needs deep fresh, silicate soils. It is resistant to frost, snow and winds. It is more demanding to moisture and soil nutrient data from the pine forest and prefers areas with high cloud cover. Montenegro, Serbia, South Bulgaria and Albania. In Greece not create forests but appear along with forest pine and beech, in Voras, in the area of Aridaia (beautiful Meadow and Upper Peternik) and Rodopi (position Tsichla) Length 5-8 mm. With double flap. Cylindrical, light brown, 8-14 cm long. With short peduncle per 1-4 diverge or hanging from the branches. Carpels broad wedge, leathery, and apical hub. Maturing : in September to October of the second year of flowering. Fall of the seeds : immediately after ripening.  Elongated oval pointed, red-yellow color with resin. The wood is suitable for construction timber, furniture and investments. It could be used in reforestation, for lifting the treeline in high mountains of Northern Greece with silicate rocks, and for water production.